Reproductive Surgery

Reproductive Surgery

Reproductive Surgery

Between 35 and 40 percent of infertility cases are caused by tubal factors, which means that the Fallopian Tubes have abnormalities due to blockage or adhesions (scar tissue), preventing or reducing the chances of conception. Other conditions that decrease fertility include endometriosis and uterine fibroids. In all these cases, reproductive surgery is recommended to improve fertility.

Hysteroscopy

Hysteroscopy is a diagnostic and therapeutic procedure used to identify and address problems involving the uterine cavity. It is a diagnostic method (diagnostic hysteroscopy) because it visualizes the uterine cavity, allowing the identification of lesions such as polyps, fibroids, and septums that affect the inside of the uterus. Likewise, it is a therapeutic procedure (surgical hysteroscopy) that allows correcting diagnosed conditions.

Laparoscopy

Laparoscopy is currently used to treat a range of conditions that were previously managed with traditional or open surgery, including tubal recanalization, endometriosis treatment, ectopic pregnancy, fibroid removal, ovarian cysts, and in some patients, hysterectomy (uterus removal).

It is an endoscopic surgical procedure in which there is direct visualization of the abdominal and pelvic cavity, allowing precise identification of the different structures within it. It is necessary to emphasize that laparoscopy is major surgery, performed through small incisions in the abdominal wall.

The advantages of laparoscopy are numerous, but among the main ones are its low complication rate, rapid patient recovery, and better visualization of certain pelvic structures.

Tubal Recanalization

Laparoscopy is currently used to treat a range of conditions that were previously managed with traditional or open surgery, including tubal recanalization, endometriosis treatment, ectopic pregnancy, fibroid removal, ovarian cysts, and in some patients, hysterectomy (uterus removal).

It is an endoscopic surgical procedure in which there is direct visualization of the abdominal and pelvic cavity, allowing precise identification of the different structures within it. It is necessary to emphasize that laparoscopy is major surgery, performed through small incisions in the abdominal wall.

The advantages of laparoscopy are numerous, but among the main ones are its low complication rate, rapid patient recovery, and better visualization of certain pelvic structures.

Myomectomy

Myomectomy is the surgical procedure for removing fibroids from the uterus. Fibroids are benign tumors that form from the smooth muscle that makes up most of the uterine wall, and they can grow to significantly modify the uterine walls or the inside of the uterine cavity.

It is estimated that 25 to 40% of women of reproductive age have them. These tumors are usually asymptomatic, but when they produce symptoms, the most common ones are heavy bleeding (menorrhagia), prolonged bleeding (polymenorrhea), or chronic pelvic pain and infertility.

Fibroids’ involvement in infertility can occur through various mechanisms, including obstruction of the openings through which the tubes originate, deformation of the uterine cavity, and alterations in the endometrial cavity affecting implantation and embryonic development, resulting in a higher probability of miscarriage or premature birth.

Endometriosis

Endometriosis is one of the gynecological disorders that most affects women worldwide, ranging from a silent disease to very bothersome symptoms related to fertility. It is estimated that 30% of women have some degree of endometriosis, and of those patients, 30% will have significant medical problems.

Endometriosis occurs when endometrial tissue that lines the uterine cavity grows outside it. This misplaced tissue can implant and grow anywhere in the abdominal cavity, or rarely in distant sites such as the navel or lungs. It can also grow in small superficial patches, called implants, in thicker penetrating nodules, or it can form cysts in the ovaries called endometriomas.

In some cases, infertility is a symptom of endometriosis. This condition can prevent conception in several ways. It is proven to alter ovulation quality and can produce inflammation in the areas where it is implanted, leading to adhesions between two or more organs and the obstruction of the fallopian tubes.

The two main forms of treatment are medications and surgery, aiming to improve the quality of life by relieving pain symptoms and enhancing fertility.

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